Bastard - To be born a bastard mean a child was born out of wedlock. Either from an affair, prostitute, or a rape.
Dauphin of France - The Dauphin means the next in line for the throne of France. He is the oldest male and is raised to become king. 
Whipping boy - A male that is punished in place of a Royal. Often when Future kings are being raised they are educated and are good friends with their whipping boy, often their own age. This is to make them feel bad when they misbehave and their friend gets punished for it.
A Viscount - A viscount or viscountess (female) is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, below an earl or a count, but a few above a knight. 
The Rack/The Stretcher - A medieval torture device that a person would be placed on either for torture, information, or as a death penalty. They would often be laying down flat with their arms apart and straight above their head, while their legs were spread apart, and straight out. Someone would then crank the device and it would pull the victims arms one way, and their legs the opposite, by either a lot or a little. Depending on how many times the device was craned.
The Block - Is a slang term for beheading. Meaning the specially deigned piece of wood used to place a persons head on before cutting it off with a sword or an axe.
Consummation - The Consummation ceremony, also knows as the Bedding ceremony takes place after a Royal, or sometime even a highly placed nobel's marriage. A Priest, other noels and Royals witness the couple's first night together as proof their marriage has been consummated. Sexual relations and penetration from the male is expected, this is to prove that they have sealed their marriage before God, and to show any heirs the woman births are that of her husbands.